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What is Android Jetpack Compose: An Introduction to Google’s UI Toolkit

Android Jetpack Compose is a modern UI toolkit introduced by Google for creating native Android apps. It is built with the goal of simplifying the process of building user interfaces while also promoting a more efficient, reactive, and declarative approach.


Android Jetpack Compose is a modern, reactive framework for building user interfaces in Android applications. It was introduced by Google in 2020 and has since become a popular choice among Android developers. The framework provides a more concise and expressive way to build UI compared to traditional Android UI frameworks like XML-based layouts.

Compose is built with a focus on simplicity and flexibility, allowing developers to quickly create complex UIs using just a few lines of code. It uses a functional approach to UI development, where UI components are treated as functions that can be composed and reused. This makes it easy to create and maintain UIs that are responsive, modular, and scalable.

Another key advantage of using Compose is its performance. The framework is designed to run efficiently on Android devices, and it uses modern technologies like the Kotlin programming language and the Android KTX library to optimize performance and reduce boilerplate code. This makes it possible to build high-quality UIs that run smoothly and provide a great user experience.

Overall, Android Jetpack Compose is a powerful and flexible framework for building UIs in Android applications. Its intuitive and concise syntax, combined with its performance optimizations, make it an ideal choice for developers who want to build modern, high-quality apps quickly and efficiently.


Before you can start using Android Jetpack Compose in your Android projects, there are a few tools and dependencies you’ll need to have installed. The following is a list of the prerequisites:

  • Android Studio 4.2 or later: You’ll need the latest version of Android Studio to start using Compose. This version of Android Studio includes the necessary plugins and libraries to work with Compose.
  • Kotlin 1.4 or later: Compose is built on top of the Kotlin programming language, so you’ll need to have Kotlin installed on your machine.
  • Android Gradle plugin version 7.0.0 or later: The Android Gradle plugin is used to build and manage your Android projects. You’ll need to have the latest version installed to use Compose.

In addition to these tools and dependencies, you’ll also need to make sure your Android device or emulator meets the minimum API level required to use Compose. The minimum API level is currently Android 11 (API level 30).

It’s also important to note that Compose is still in the alpha stage of development, which means it’s not yet fully stable. As a result, it may not be suitable for all types of projects and use cases. If you’re planning to use Compose in a production app, it’s a good idea to stay up to date with the latest developments and be prepared for potential compatibility issues.

Setting up Compose

Once you have the necessary tools and dependencies installed, you’re ready to start using Android Jetpack Compose in your Android projects. Here’s a step-by-step guide for setting up Compose in your project:

  1. Open your Android project in Android Studio.
  2. In the Project window, navigate to the app-level build.gradle file.
  3. In the build.gradle file, add the following dependencies to the dependencies section:
implementation "androidx.ui:ui-tooling:0.2.0-alpha03"
implementation "androidx.compose:compose-runtime:1.0.0-alpha03"
  1. Sync your project with Gradle by clicking the “Sync Now” button in the Gradle sync notification that appears in the IDE.
  2. Create a new Kotlin file in your project, and add the following code to the file:
  1. Run the DefaultPreview function to see the “Hello World” text displayed in the Compose Preview window.

In this example, you’re adding two dependencies to your build.gradle file: the ui-tooling and compose-runtime libraries. These libraries provide the necessary tools and components to use Compose in your Android project.

Once the dependencies are added and the project is synced with Gradle, you can create a new Kotlin file with a Compose function to display a simple “Hello World” text. The @Composable annotation indicates that the function is a composable, which can be used to create UI elements in Compose. The @Preview annotation allows you to preview the composable in the Compose Preview window in Android Studio.

With these steps, you’ve successfully integrated Android Jetpack Compose into your Android project and are ready to start building UIs with Compose.

Creating your first Compose UI

Now that you have Android Jetpack Compose set up in your Android project, it’s time to start creating UIs with it. In this section, we’ll demonstrate how to use Compose to create a basic UI for an Android app and explain some key concepts along the way.

A. Key Concepts

Before diving into the demonstration, let’s briefly cover three key concepts in Compose:

  1. Composables: A composable is a function that takes inputs and returns a tree of UI elements. You can think of composables as building blocks for creating UI elements in Compose.
  2. State: State is mutable data that can be updated by the user. When state is updated, Compose automatically updates the UI elements that depend on it.
  3. Composable functions: Composable functions are functions that can be used to create UI elements in Compose. They are annotated with the @Composable annotation and can be used in other composables to build complex UI structures.

B. Demonstration

Let’s demonstrate how to use Compose to create a basic UI for an Android app. Here’s an example:

  1. Text fields: To create a text field with Compose, you can use the TextField composable. This composable takes a value parameter to specify the text displayed in the field and a onValueChange parameter to specify the action that should be triggered when the text in the field changes.
  1. Images: To display an image in Compose, you can use the Image composable. This composable takes a source parameter to specify the source of the image, such as a URL or a drawable resource.

These are just a few examples of how to implement common UI components with Compose. You can find more information and additional examples in the official Compose documentation. With these examples, you should now have a good understanding of how to create a wide range of UI components with Compose.

Best practices for using Compose

As with any framework, it’s important to use Compose effectively in order to create high-performing and accessible apps. In this section, we’ll discuss some important considerations for using Compose and provide some best practices for using it in real-world apps.

A. Performance optimization

Performance is a critical aspect of any app, and it’s especially important when using a new framework like Compose. Here are some tips for optimizing the performance of your Compose apps:

  • Minimize the use of state and ensure that state updates are efficient
  • Use composable functions judiciously, and avoid using them for trivial UI elements
  • Be mindful of the number of composables in your app, and consider splitting your UI into smaller, more manageable components

B. Accessibility

Accessibility is an important aspect of app development, and Compose provides a number of tools to make it easier to create accessible apps. Here are some tips for ensuring accessibility in your Compose apps:

  • Use semantic elements whenever possible, such as Button and TextField
  • Provide alternative text for images and other graphics
  • Ensure that your app is usable with a screen reader

C. Best practices for real-world apps

Here are some tips for using Compose in real-world apps:

  • Organize your code into reusable composable functions, and use the functional composition pattern whenever possible
  • Use the Android Studio design tool to preview your UI and test your composables
  • Make use of the Material Design system and other design libraries to simplify the styling of your app

By following these best practices, you can ensure that your Compose apps are well-structured, high-performing, and accessible. With the right approach, Compose can be a powerful tool for creating efficient and beautiful Android apps.


In this guide, we’ve covered the basics of setting up and using Android Jetpack Compose for Android app development. By now, you should have a good understanding of what Compose is, how to set it up, and how to create UI elements with it.

A. Benefits of using Compose

There are many benefits to using Compose for Android app development, including:

  • Ease of use: Compose is designed to be intuitive and easy to use, making it accessible to developers of all levels.
  • Improved performance: Compose is optimized for performance, which helps to ensure that your apps run smoothly and efficiently.
  • Accessibility: Compose provides a number of tools to make it easier to create accessible apps, which is important for creating apps that are usable for everyone.

B. Further learning and getting help

If you’re interested in learning more about Compose and improving your skills, there are a number of resources available to help you. Here are a few that you might find helpful:

  • The Android Jetpack Compose official documentation provides a comprehensive guide to using Compose, including tutorials and code samples.
  • The Android Developers blog provides regular updates and news on Compose, as well as in-depth articles on using the framework.
  • The Android Developers community is a great place to ask questions and connect with other developers who are using Compose.

With these resources and a little bit of practice, you should be well on your way to becoming an expert in using Android Jetpack Compose for Android app development.

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